01 June 2022
The adoption of the Paris Agreement was a pivotal moment in the global effort to address climate change. For the first time, all Parties were brought together in a common and united purpose based on responses to climate change determined individually at the national level. Parties have been called on to establish NDCs to communicate the domestic and, where applicable, international actions that they intend to take to mitigate climate change, adapt to its effects, and support other countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts by means of FTC initiatives.
Under the Paris Agreement, processes for tracking national efforts have been established to assess whether countries are meeting their goals and the collective sum of individual contributions is on track to meet the overall purpose and goals of the Agreement, in particular the goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.
Building on the existing reporting and review processes under the Convention, the ETF has been established for reporting and review under the Paris Agreement to ensure the transparency of mitigation and adaptation actions and of support. The ETF is to be implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner that is respectful of national sovereignty, and shall avoid placing undue burden on Parties, recognizing the special circumstances of the LDCs and SIDS.
Many of the requirements under the ETF are familiar to Parties, particularly developed country Parties, given their experience with MRV under the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol. Building upon such experiences, the ETF introduces new and enhanced reporting and review requirements, particularly for developing country Parties. Importantly, the COP called for the implementation of the Paris Agreement to reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances. These principles were reflected in the design of the ETF and are specifically manifested in provisions, embodied in the MPGs, offering flexibility in meeting the ETF requirements to those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities with a view to enabling all Parties to improve reporting and enhance transparency over time. The ETF should, in turn, encourage greater ambition and action (see figure 1) by facilitating access to information on both progress in implementing and achieving NDCs under Article 4 of the Paris Agreement and FTC support provided and mobilized by developed countries and needed and received by developing countries. The link between enhanced transparency efforts and the receipt of FTC support by developing countries is recognized in the Paris Agreement as well as in the MPGs and decisions agreed in Glasgow.